Information on the Shuar and Our Field Site
The Shuar Health and Life History Project, directed by Drs. Larry Sugiyama and Josh Snodgrass of the University of Oregon, is an interdisciplinary collaborative research effort that involves scientists from several US universities, Ecuadorian health providers, and Shuar colleagues. Drs. Felicia Madimenos (CUNY-Queens College), Sam Urlacher (CUNY-Hunter), Tara Cepon-Robins (University of Colorado, Colorado Springs), Melissa Liebert (Oregon), Rick Bribiescas (Yale), and Aaron Blackwell (UCSB) serve as a senior members of the research team. The project focuses on Shuar and non-indigenous Ecuadorians (Colonos) from the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador. For more info on the field site, click here.
Traditionally forager-horticulturalists, Shuar currently experience a wide range of market integration (i.e., the suite of social and cultural changes that occur with economic development) across their territory. This provides an important opportunity for addressing how economic, social, and dietary changes associated with market integration affect life history tradeoffs, and how those tradeoffs affect health. It allows examination of particular aspects of market integration, predicted life history changes, and actual behavior and health across a wide range of conditions within the same ethnic group. Simultaneously, comparison of Upano Valley Shuar, who are currently more market integrated, with their Colono neighbors provides an opportunity to examine these same variables among people from a different cultural background living under similar socio-ecological conditions. For more information on Shuar, click here.
The Shuar Health and Life History Project is conducted in collaboration with the UCSB Center for Evolutionary Psychology's Human Universals Project, the Shuar Federation, the Ecuadorian Health Ministry Hospital in Sucúa, Ecuador, as well as colleagues at universities in the US, including Northwestern University (Dr. Thom McDade), Harvard University (graduate student Heather Shattuck-Heidorn), and Yale University (Dr. Rick Bribiescas and graduate student Dorsa Amir). Also, We have a paper in a recent Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, with Isabel Scott (Brunel University), Ian Penton-Voak (University of Bristol) and a number of other collaborators, on economic development and facial attractiveness ("Human preferences for sexually dimorphic faces may be evolutionarily novel"). Clink here for the paper.
We are also collaborating with Elizabeth Cashdan (University of Utah) on an project funded by the NSF Interdisciplinary Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (IBSS) competition, entitled "Age Changes and Gender Differences in Spatial Abilities: Testing the Role of Mobility in Three Non-Industrial Societies and in the US".
We've recently started collaborating with Herman Pontzer (CUNY-Hunter) and Lara Dugas (Loyola University) on an NSF-funded project ("Tradeoffs in childhood energy allocation and the impact of market integration on ontogeny and health")--an SBE Postdoctoral Research Fellowship to Sam Urlacher.
Goals of the Project
The goals of the Shuar Health and Life History Project are threefold. First, we are investigating how cultural and economic changes in the region affect health and well-being. One component of this research focuses on growth and nutritional status in Shuar children. We have compared Shuar children to other populations and examined risk factors for poor growth. After 10 years of intensive research, we have amassed an enormous amount of data on growth. These results were first described in Blackwell et al. 2009. We have several recent publications on Shuar growth, including a paper in the American Journal of Human Biology that describes Shuar growth references (for height, weight, and BMI; Urlacher et al. 2016), a paper in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology that details the application of knemometry to measure childhood short-term growth (Urlacher et al. 2016), and a paper in Annals of Human Biology that describes the effects of market integration on growth (Urlacher et al. 2016).
Shuar kids in an Upano Valley community
Another area of research is skeletal health and risk for osteoporosis. This research, led by Felicia Madimenos, has examined the reproductive and lifestyle factors that influence bone mineral density. Results of this research are detailed in several papers, including in the Archives of Osteoporosis (Madimenos et al. 2011) and the American Journal of Human Biology (Madimenos et al. 2012). This research was profiled recently on the Scientific American blog. It provides a nice summary of the article and also describes the Shuar project as “well known within anthropology for its rigorous methodology and outreach with local participants. It’s also an interdisciplinary site that seems to be great for tackling both biological and cultural anthropology questions.” Here's the link. We have a new paper, published in the American Journal of Human Biology, that looks at bone density among Colonos (Madimenos et al. 2015).
Felicia Madimenos using a heel ultrasonometer to measure bone mineral density
We are also looking at the effects of social change on other chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and examining the role of physical activity, chronic psychosocial stress, and diet in shaping disease patterns among Shuar. We have a paper in Annals of Human Biology (Liebert et al. 2013) that describes the effects of market integration (i.e., the suite of social and cultural changes that occur with economic development) on cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, concentrating on how factors like proximity to town and consumption of market foods shape risk markers such as blood pressure, lipids, and glucose. The study provides evidence that market integration among Shuar is not a uniformly negative process but instead produces complex cardiovascular and metabolic health outcomes. That paper recently won the Nick Norgan Award for 2014 as the best paper published in Annals of Human Biology during 2013. Dissertation research by Melissa Liebert (completed 2016) examined the effects of market integration on chronic psychosocial stress, measured using salivary cortisol.
Melissa Liebert helps a Shuar girl collect a saliva sample for cortisol analysis
Second, we are using the branch of evolutionary biology known as life history theory to better understand the tradeoffs between different branches of immune function in Shuar children, and to use this information to elucidate how energy is allocated to competing priorities such as maintenance, growth, reproduction and physical activity. These findings have been detailed in a series of publications by Ph.D. Aaron Blackwell in the American Journal of Human Biology (Blackwell et al. 2010) and PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases (Blackwell et al. 2011). Our most recent research in life history theory employs knemometry (the accurate and reliable measurement of lower leg length) to assess Shuar short-term linear growth. In coordination with detailed body composition, immune function, and lifestyle data, this research aims to provide novel insight into previously unexplored relationships between primary life functions and acute ecological/energetic variables during childhood. That research was central to Sam Urlacher's dissertation research (completed 2016).
Aaron Blackwell measuring body fat on a Shuar boy (left); American Journal of
Human Biology cover from November/December 2010 highlighting our work (right)
Sam Urlacher using a portable knemometer to measure the lower leg length of a Shuar girl
Further, we’ve investigated relationship between markers of immune function/inflammation (e.g., immunoglobulin E and C-reactive protein [CRP]) and several measures of cardiovascular and metabolic health (e.g., fasting glucose and lipids). This research suggests important tradeoffs between immune responses and different aspects of cardiovascular and metabolic health. This research was presented at the annual meeting of the Human Biology Association meetings by graduate student Melissa Liebert (Liebert et al. 2011). We also collaborated with Thom McDade and former Northwestern graduate student Paula Tallman on an NSF-funded ecological immunology project that investigated CRP variability within the context of this non-industrialized, high infectious disease environment. The findings were described in an article in the American Journal of Human Biology (McDade et al. 2012), and were the subject of a news piece in Science. These results have important implications for research on inflammation and diseases of aging globally, as well as for scientific understandings of the regulation of inflammation. Tara Cepon-Robins expanded this research by examining how parasite burden structures life history trade-offs, and how shifting patterns of infectious disease exposure alter risk for allergies and autoimmune diseases, the subject of her dissertation research (completed 2015). We have a paper in a recent issue of the Journal of Parasitology that examines the prevalence and infection intensity of parasitic worms among geographically and economically distinct Shuar communities (Cepon-Robins et al. 2014); this research was refined in research led by graduate student Theresa Gildner that was published recently in the Journal of Physiological Anthropology (Gildner et al. 2016).
The Shuar project also features prominently in an ongoing NSF-sponsored project led by Snodgrass and Dr. Geeta Eick (University of Oregon), "Building the Methodological Toolkit in Biological Anthropology: Dried Blood Spot Methods Development for Addressing Key Evolutionary and Biocultural Questions" (BCS-1638786), that seeks to develop and validate six new dried blood spots assays for use in population-level research. Both Cepon-Robins and Sugiyama are involved in the project. The project, which is being conducted in the Snodgrass Human Biology Research Lab, focuses on the biomarkers myeloperoxidase (pANCA; an indicator of inflammatory bowel disease), TPOAb (a marker of autoimmune thyroid disorders), interleukin-10 (IL-10; an anti-inflammatory cytokine), carboxylated osteocalcin (cOC; a marker of bone formation), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP5b; a marker of bone resorption), and Klotho (a marker of stress-related aging). These techniques can then be used in the Shuar project to test a variety of research questions, including how parasitic worm exposure is related to the risk of autoimmune disease.
Tara Cepon preparing a fecal sample for analysis of parasitic worms
Finally, we seek to provide health information to participants and community partners in order to assist in targeting prevention and treatment efforts. Our research is conducted in collaboration with Ecuadorian medical colleagues and the Shuar Federation.
Project founder and co-director Larry Sugiyama weighing a baby
We facilitate delivery of health information to participants, the Shuar Federation, and local medical providers in three ways: 1) individual health results are provided and explained to each participant; 2) evidence of pathology is conveyed to local medical workers if the participant desires, and assistance provided with acquisition of treatment if necessary and feasible; and 3) overall research results and interpretation are presented to Ministry of Health colleagues, the Shuar Federation Health directorate, and participant community meetings in order to contribute to public health policy.
Madimenos and Sugiyama received an Engaged Anthropology Grant from the Wenner-Gren Foundation in 2013 ("Engaging Shuar Communities through Collaborative Health Education: Enhancing Participant Agency in Indigenous Health Research") to work with Shuar communities and conduct a series of workshops, presentations and family days to disseminate information regarding health issues in the community. Check out the write-up of the project on the Wenner-Gren website.
A Shuar colleague and local health care provider assisted by community members
present on health and family planning in a rural Shuar community
The research conducted by the Shuar Health and Life History Project is important because it has expanded the view of the extent of health change with market integration (i.e., beyond a focus on chronic disease to a more holistic one that consider osteoporosis, infectious/parasitic diseases, and autoimmune conditions) and has demonstrated that metabolic and cardiovascular effects of market integration are far more nuanced than recognized by previous studies. It has also helped to elucidate the physiological mechanisms and environmental triggers responsible for life history trade-offs, in part through advancements in human biology methods. And, finally, research topics such as the the evolution and environmental calibration of disgust sensitivity demonstrate the utility of conceptual unity and methodological integration across different branches of human evolutionary research—in this case evolutionary psychology and human biology—to elucidate how environmental differences are processed by psychological adaptations to produce variation in fitness-related outcomes.